|Working on Unit 14 and STP 3|
As mentioned in the last update, Unit 14 has produced a large number of historic artifacts. A wide range of ceramics has been recovered in recently excavated layers. Most of the ceramics continue to be small fragments and many date to the 18th century including pieces of whieldon ware, manganese mottled ware, tin-glazed earthenware, and Staffordshire slipware.
|Fragments of ceramics recovered from Unit 14|
A lot of straight pins were recovered during earlier excavations of Unit 14, but the levels we excavated at the end of the weekend had significantly fewer straight pins. While the number of straight pins decreased, the number of pipe stem and bowl fragments increase considerably. Very few pipe fragments were noted up until this point.
In addition to the numerous historic artifacts found, an artifact of prehistoric origins was recovered last Saturday: a broken biface was unearthed identified in a historic layer. Biface is a term used to denote a stone tool that was worked on both sides. This biface was made of Pennsylvania Jasper. As a previous post explained, the land surrounding Elfreth’s Alley would have been a prime location for Native Americans to inhabit.
|Katie holding Jasper biface she found|
We are now approximately 2.5 feet below ground surface, and the artifact density has decreased. It appears we are nearing the end of the historic fill.
Shovel test pit 3 (STP 3) was located just south of the small garden wall behind 124 Elfreth’s Alley.
|Matt working on STP 3|
The soil in the test pit was very mixed and included several different colors and textures. Shortly after beginning excavation, a brick wall was unearthed in the eastern section of the shovel test pit. The bricks continued for four courses until a stone foundation wall appeared below the bricks. A cast iron pipe was also uncovered in the center of the shovel test pit.
|Brick wall visible in profile of STP 3|
These finds were not unexpected; in 2011 and 2012 we unearthed portions of the same wall (Wall #1) and pipe under the brick patio. When we initially found the stone foundation wall, we hypothesized that a narrower brick wall may have once sat atop the stone foundations, but no evidence of these bricks were recovered in previous excavations. STP 3 confirmed our hypothesis. Also it appears the terminus of wall #1 is in the center of STP 3. This roughly aligns with lot dimensions shown on historic maps, indicating that the wall conforms to historic lots lines. Expanding excavation of the shovel test pit would reveal whether the wall turns at this terminus, in other words whether this is the corner of a former building. Very few artifacts were recovered from STP 3. Excavation of the pit was terminated became too difficult to excavate due to the pipe.
A bit more excavation needs to be completed, then we will back fill Unit 14 and the courtyard will once again transform into a roaming ground for tourists.